A. JAWAHARLAL NEHRU NATIONAL URBAN RENEWAL MISSION (JnNURM)
B. RAJIV AWAS YOJANA
Nearly one third (31%) of India's population of 1.21 billion lives in the urban areas (377 million) spread in nearly 8,000 towns and urban agglomerations. Cities and towns have a vital role in Indian socio-economic transformation & change. About 30% of country’s population contributes to 60 per cent of the gross domestic product (GDP). Approaching the end of the 11th Five Year Plan, the total housing shortage in the country stands at 26.53 million dwelling units for about 75.01 million households, bulk of which pertains to Economically Weaker Sections (EWS) including the Below Poverty Line (BPL) households, who are mostly living in deplorable living conditions. The total estimated investment for meeting the housing requirement at the end of 11th Five Year Plan is of the order of Rs.3.61 lac crores.
Launch of JnNURM
Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JnNURM) is a massive city modernization programme launched by Government of India on 3rd December, 2005 which envisages a total investment of Rs. 66,000 crores (enhanced from Rs. 50,000 crores during launch of the programme) to improve quality of life and infrastructure in the cities. The mission aims at creating `economically productive, efficient, equitable and responsive cities’ by a strategy of upgrading social & economic infrastructure in cities, provision of Basic Services to the Urban Poor and wide-ranging urban sector reforms to strengthen municipal governance in accordance with the 74th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1992. In order to promote the concept of inclusive cities in which every citizen has reasonable and affordable access to basic amenities, the programme focuses on provision of a garland of entitlements to the urban poor, in terms of security of tenure, affordable housing, potable water & sanitation while envisaging convergence of health, education & social security. This is the single largest national initiative ever launched to address the problems of infrastructure and basic services to the urban poor in a holistic manner.
Objectives of the Mission
The Mission aims at reform driven, planned development of cities and towns with focus on community participation and accountability of Urban Local Bodies (ULBs)/ Para-statal bodies towards the urban citizens. The duration of the Mission is 7 years beginning from 2005-2006 to 2011-2012. It comprises of two Sub missions, one for Urban Infrastructure and Governance (UIG) and the other for Basic Services to the Urban Poor (BSUP), to be implemented in 65 (increased from 63) identified Mission cities across the country. For the remaining towns and cities, two other programmes namely, Urban Infrastructure Development Scheme for Small and Medium Towns (UIDSSMT) and Integrated Housing & Slum Development Program (IHSDP) were launched simultaneously.
On completion of the mission period of 7 years, the expected outcomes are that all urban poor to have access to a basic level of urban services and ULBs to be financially self-sustaining & accountable agencies for urban governance & service delivery having modern & transparent accounting, budgeting & governance with e-Governance in core functions resulting in reduced cost & service delivery time.